The principle of protecting small states by equal representation in the Senate is passed on to the electoral college that elects the president, since the number of votes for each state is based on the total number of state representatives in the House of Representatives and the Senate. Until July 16, the Convention had already set the minimum age for senators at 30 and the term at six, compared to 25 years for members of the House of Representatives for a two-year term. James Madison explained that these distinctions, based on „the nature of the confidence of senators, which requires a greater degree of information and character stability,“ would allow the Senate to continue „with more freshness, with more system and with more wisdom than the popular branch [ly] chosen.“ Regardless of the view on the fairness of the distribution of Grand Compromise delegates to the Senate, that is unlikely to change any day. Indeed, representation in the Senate is expressly protected by the Constitution. 2 – Grand Compromise – Agreement creating an alternating system of congressional representation – Compromise of three-fifths – Agreement providing that enslaved persons would be counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in Congress – Electoral College – A group of people appointed by each national legislation to elect the president and vice-president – Federalists – Supporters of the Constitution – Federalism – A form of government that divides the government between the Federal Parliament , or national government and states – anti-federalism – Those who refused ratification of the Constitution The issue of representation, however, threatened to destroy the seven-week-old convention. Delegates from the major states felt that because they contributed proportionately more to the country`s financial and defensive resources, their states should have proportional representation in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. Delegates from small states called, with comparable intensity, for all states to be represented in the same way in both houses. When Sherman proposed the compromise, Benjamin Franklin agreed that each state should have the same vote in the Senate on all matters except those related to money. The debate almost destroyed the US-Constitution. At the constitutional convention of 1787, delegates from the major states believed that the representation of each state in the proposed new Senate should be proportional to the population. To balance the interests of small and large states, constitutional advocates have divided the power of Congress between the two houses. Each state has an equal voice in the Senate, while representation in the House of Representatives is based on the size of the population of each state.
This plan of representation in Congress was presented in 1787 by the delegates of the Constitutional Convention in Connecticut, Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth. July 16, 1987 began with a light breeze, cloudless skies and a spirit of celebration. On that day, 200 senators and representatives took a special train to Philadelphia to celebrate a unique anniversary of Congress.